Covid 19: Post-Infektions oder Impfdurchbrüche

Erstellt am 26 May 2022 13:12
Zuletzt geändert: 05 Jun 2022 16:35

Literatur

  • Tang J, Novak T, Hecker J, Grubbs G, Zahra FT, Bellusci L, Pourhashemi S, Chou J, Moffitt K, Halasa NB, Schwartz SP, Walker TC, Tarquinio KM, Zinter MS, Staat MA, Gertz SJ, Cvijanovich NZ, Schuster JE, Loftis LL, Coates BM, Mack EH, Irby K, Fitzgerald JC, Rowan CM, Kong M, Flori HR, Maddux AB, Shein SL, Crandall H, Hume JR, Hobbs CV, Tremoulet AH, Shimizu C, Burns JC, Chen SR, Moon HK, Lange C, Randolph AG, Khurana S. Cross-reactive immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is low in pediatric patients with prior COVID-19 or MIS-C. Nat Commun. 2022 May 27;13(1):2979. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-30649-1. PMID: 35624101; PMCID: PMC9142524.

Bericht zu der Studie im Deutschen Ärzteblatt:
Silver Spring/Maryland – Kinder, die nach einer Infektion mit einer früheren Variante von SARS-CoV-2 an COVID-19 oder einem multisystemischen Entzündungssyndrom (MIS) erkrankt waren, hatten in einer Laborstudie keinen ausreichenden Antikörperschutz vor der Omikron-Variante entwickelt.
Fazit: COVID-19: Infektionen hinterlassen bei Kindern keinen Antikörperschutz vor Omikron.

Arbeitsgruppe zu Veterans Research, Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Abstract
The post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-also referred to as Long COVID-have been described, but whether breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection (BTI) in vaccinated people results in post-acute sequelae is not clear. In this study, we used the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases to build a cohort of 33,940 individuals with BTI and several controls of people without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including contemporary (n = 4,983,491), historical (n = 5,785,273) and vaccinated (n = 2,566,369) controls.
At 6 months after infection, we show that, beyond the first 30 days of illness, compared to contemporary controls, people with BTI exhibited a higher risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59, 1.93) and incident post-acute sequelae (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.54), including cardiovascular, coagulation and hematologic, gastrointestinal, kidney, mental health, metabolic, musculoskeletal and neurologic disorders. The results were consistent in comparisons versus the historical and vaccinated controls.
Compared to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were not previously vaccinated (n = 113,474), people with BTI exhibited lower risks of death (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.74) and incident post-acute sequelae (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.89).
Altogether, the findings suggest that vaccination before infection confers only partial protection in the post-acute phase of the disease; hence, reliance on it as a sole mitigation strategy may not optimally reduce long-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings emphasize the need for continued optimization of strategies for primary prevention of BTI and will guide development of post-acute care pathways for people with BTI.

Methods: We used data from Ontario, Canada's Case and Contact Management database …
Results: In 20,064 individuals (3,353 vaccinated and 16,711 unvaccinated) hospitalized with infection due to SARS-CoV-2 between January 1st, 2021 and January 5th, 2022, vaccination with 1, 2, or 3 doses significantly reduced the risk of ICU admission and death. An inverse dose-response relationship was observed between vaccine doses received and both outcomes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per additional dose for ICU admission: 0.66, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.71; aOR for death: 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.84). Reduction in risk was greater for ICU admission than for death (P for heterogeneity <0.05).
Interpretation: We identified decreased virulence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals, even when vaccines failed to prevent infection sufficiently severe to cause hospitalization. Even with diminished efficacy of vaccines against infection with novel VOCs, vaccines remain an important tool for reduction of ICU admission and mortality.

Israelisches Autorenteam
Design: Retrospective, test negative, case-control study, with a matched analysis and an unmatched multiple tests analysis.
Results: 27 876 participants received the fourth BNT162b2 vaccine dose and 69 623 received three doses only. Of 106 participants who died during the follow-up period, 77 had had their third doses only and 23 had had their fourth doses during the first three weeks after inoculation. In the first three weeks, a fourth dose provided additional protection against both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease relative to three doses of the vaccine. However, relative vaccine effectiveness against infection quickly decreased over time, peaking during the third week at 65.1% (95% confidence interval 63.0% to 67.1%) and falling to 22.0% (4.9% to 36.1%) by the end of the 10 week follow-up period. Unlike relative effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, the relative effectiveness of a fourth dose against severe covid-19 was maintained at a high level (>72%) throughout follow-up. However, severe disease was a relatively rare event, occurring in <1% of study participants who received four doses or three doses only.
Conclusions: A fourth dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine appears to have provided additional protection against both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 disease relative to three vaccine doses. However, relative effectiveness of the fourth dose against infection appears to wane sooner than that of the third dose.

Aus dem Text:
This is a retrospective population-based matched observational study where we identified the first PCR positive of primary SARS-CoV-2 infection cases test between 01 March 2020 and 30 September 2020.
There were 517,870 individuals in the matched cohort with 2,815 reinfection cases and 12,098 first infections. The protective effect of a prior SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive episode was 78% (OR 0.22, 0.21-0.23). Protection rose to 82% (OR 0.18, 0.17-0.19) after a sensitivity analysis excluded 933 individuals with a first test between March and May and a subsequent positive test between June and September 2020. Amongst individuals testing positive by PCR during follow-up, reinfection cases had 77% lower odds of symptoms at the second episode (adjusted OR 0.23, 0.20-0.26) and 45% lower odds of dying in the 28 days after reinfection (adjusted OR 0.55, 0.42-0.71).
Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection offered protection against reinfection in this population. There was some evidence that reinfections increased with the Alpha variant compared to the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 variant highlighting the importance of continued monitoring as new variants emerge.

Autorenteam aus Deutschland, Regensburg, Traunstein.
Background: The long-term course of immunity among individuals with a history of COVID-19, in particular among those who received a booster vaccination, has not been well defined so far.
Methods: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA over 1 year among 136 health care workers infected during the first COVID-19 wave and in a subgroup after booster vaccination approximately 1 year later. Furthermore, spike-protein-reactive memory T cells were quantified approximately 7 months after the infection and after booster vaccination. Thirty healthy individuals without history of COVID-19 who were routinely vaccinated served as controls.
Results: Levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM- and IgA-antibodies showed a rapid decay over time, whereas IgG-antibody levels decreased more slowly. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, booster vaccination induced very high IgG- and to a lesser degree IgA-antibodies. Antibody levels were significantly higher after booster vaccination than after recovery from COVID-19. After vaccination with a two-dose schedule, healthy control subjects developed similar antibody levels as compared to individuals with history of COVID-19 and booster vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cell counts did not correlate with antibody levels. None of the study participants suffered from a reinfection.
Conclusions: Booster vaccination induces high antibody levels in individuals with a history of COVID-19 that exceeds by far levels observed after recovery. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels of similar magnitude were achieved in healthy, COVID-19-naïve individuals after routine two-dose vaccination.

Niederländische Arbeitsgruppe.
Results: 55 prior SARS-CoV-2 infected and seroconverted individuals were included.
Conclusions: Both T cell and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 persist for up to one year after COVID-19-infection. A second COVID-19 vaccination in prior-infected individuals did not further increase immune responses in comparison to one vaccination.

Autorenteam aus China (VR).
Abstract
Without an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the build-up of herd immunity through natural infection has been suggested as a means to control COVID-19. Although population immunity is typically estimated by the serological investigation of recovered patients, humoral immunity in asymptomatic subjects has not been well studied, although they represent a large proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infection cases. In this study, we conducted a serosurvey of asymptomatic infections among food workers and performed serological and cellular response analyses of asymptomatic subjects in Wuhan, the original epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our data showed that up to 5.91% of the food workers carried SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies asymptomatically; however, in 90.4% of them, the antibody level declined over a 2-week period. IgM and IgG antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were significantly lower in asymptomatic subjects than in recovered symptomatic patients with similar disease courses. Furthermore, the asymptomatic subjects showed lymphopenia and a prominent decrease in the B-cell population, as well as a low frequency of antibody-secreting cells and a low cytokine response. These factors probably contributed to the low and unsustained antibody levels in asymptomatic subjects. Our results show that asymptomatic subjects are likely to be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, and neither the proportion of population immunity nor the breadth of immune responses is sufficient for herd immunity.

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* Zitat nach: Bach, Otto: ''Über die Subjektabhängigkeit des Bildes von der Wirklichkeit im psychiatrischen Diagnostizieren und Therapieren''. In: Psychiatrie heute, Aspekte und Perspektiven, Festschrift für Rainer Tölle, Urban & Schwarzenberg, München 1994, ISBN 3-541-17181-2, (Zitat: Seite 1)

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